2.4.3 - The contributions of the Moon and the Sun.

According to current theory, tides are caused by the gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun, according to an anomalous formula, where the distance is raised to the third power, and not to the second power.


prologue > index tides > 2.4 Confrontation on the tides.

2.4.1 Confrontation on the tides - introduction.
2.4.2 Two different descriptions of the tides.
2.4.3 The physical formula valid for the tides.
The ratio of the forces.
Number of the tide waves.
Unit of space of a tide wave.
When Earth, Moon and Sun are aligned.
Different tide cadences.

Code proposition: [P0] neutral; [P1] classic theory; [P2] favouring the inductive approach; [P3] inductive approach.


[P3] Calculating the respective contributions to the tides, by the Moon and the Sun, if we raised the values of the distances only to the 2nd power, so abiding by the law of attraction, we would have the following average ratios:
Sun 1, Moon 0.0056;
equivalent to: Moon 1, Sun 178.

[P1] Sure, but there is an exception. As far as the tides are concerned, the attraction by the Moon and Sun decreases in proportion to the distance, to be raised to the 3rd power, and not to the 2nd power. That's that.

So the ratio of the respective average contribution in generating the tides is:
Sun 1, Moon >2.19.

A question of method.

[P3] Each exception must have a justification. In a theory, an unexplained inconsistency is a blinker, which warns that something does not coincide with reality.


[P1] The tides are due to the varying attraction produced by the two masses of the Moon and Sun, on the water of the oceans of our planet, as this revolves on its axis.

That's because, in the case of the tides, and only in that case, the important is not the force in itself, but its variation, the gradient [sic!].

Indeed, the distance of the Sun from the Earth is so huge, that the difference of its attraction, on the various spots on our planet, is very small.

Although the Sun is larger than the Moon, it is significantly farther away from Earth so its pull is not felt as much (iupui.edu).

[P3] This is a fact that is already placed in the normal formula for the attraction.

[P1] One has here to consider that, the attraction of the Moon, on the different places on the Earth, varies a lot, much more than that of the Sun.

A quantitative analysis shows that the differences of the gravitational forces across all the Earth's surface are proportional to the cube of the distances Sun - Earth and Earth - Moon (M. Tomczak, 1996).


[P3] If we accept the assertion that it is the attraction the cause of the tides, we then must be forced to live with an accomodated arbitrary formula of the gravity, and to acknowledge that it is to apply only in the case of the tides, so infringing the principle of the universality of the laws in physics.

That would be like going back to the times before Galileo, when one could use an ad hoc explanation, suspended on stilts, with no evidence, in case an assumed theory is at odds with the reality.


History has plenty of instances, such as the following one.

Ptolomee, the highest authority of the time (2nd century AD) in the field of Astronomy, gave credit to the invention of the epicycles. After that, the principle of the ipse dixit did the rest.

An important clue is ignored.

Even today, there is the same propensity to the ipse dixit. A key clue, the formula, introducing a doubt on the current theory of the tides, is kept quiet by introducing ad hoc explanations.

In the very moment they adopt an expedient, so passing an inconsistency as an exception, they miss the opportunity to find what is behind.

The force d.

In this site, the cause of the tides is assumed to be the force d, consequent to the angular motion with respect to other matter.

The force d manifests itself as discrete values, which, when critical, maybe with respect to the configuration of a specific molecule, in this case the water molecule, would trigger changes in their density, during episodes of interaction, provided that all the other constraints are satisfied. First of all, the one of the heat exchanges.

On the quantitative analysis.

The quantitative analysis by M. Tomczak, mentioned above - where the differences of the gravitational forces across all the Earth's surface would be proportional to the cube of the distances Sun Earth - has no sense.

Tidal basins.

The space unit of a tidal wave, in practice, is not the Earth, but a tide basin.

There are many space units, called “tidal basins”. A tidal wave takes shape, as water decreases its density, at successive times, at the various localities, within each tidal basin. The density variation of the water may manifest itself as more or less visible “water figures”.

Each tidal basin has its own tidal wave, which has a cycle, either diurnal or semi-diurnal, autonomous relative to those which, at the same time, are developping elsewhere, each of them within its own basin.