Insert L: the Moon: satellite or co-planet?

I propose to the reader to dwell on the meaning of the word "satellite", and consider whether it is right to apply this word to the Moon.

Considering above all the functions of the Moon, its effects on the Earth, as found in the course of the present study.


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prologue > index > Insert L: the Moon: satellite or co-planet ?

L.1 About the word satellite - About our attitude.
L.2 In the solar system, only the Earth.
L.3 The implications of the experiments C and E.
L.4 A two-body system.
L.5 Comparison. Moon v Ganymede.
L.6 Reformulating the search for the exoplanets.

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L1 - About the word “satellite”.

As always, the words and expressions, which, in some way, involve our position in the universe, are the result of what we presume when words and expressions are forged.

The word satellite, applied to the Moon, reflects our usual attitude, to see us always at the center.

It is not long ago, that science has forced the man to see himself, as the guest of a planet, of average size, which revolves around the Sun, a medium-sized star, moving in a quite place, suitable for the observation of the Univers, in one galaxy among many.

The Earth without the Moon.

The word 'satellite' conveys to the mind the idea of something in a subordinate position, and of marginal importance.

Applied to the Earth-Moon relationship, the word 'satellite', somehow, imply also that the Earth could do without the Moon, with no consequences worth mentioning.

Some even fear that we have a mass so great, so close. They would feel much better without it. One never knows.


L2 - In the solar system, only the Earth.

In the solar system, ordered complexity seems to be a peculiarity of the Earth, but not of the other planets.

The current theory states that in practice the complexity, and the low level of entropy, on our planet, are maintained entirely thanks to the energy that comes from the Sun.

Forgetting to consider the difference with what happens in other planets, in terms of entropic budgets.

Here on Earth.

The ordered complexity here on Earth is due to several factors: the right distance from the Sun, the size, the magnetic system, the extremely reduced difference between perihelion and aphelion, etc. etc. Everything within the right parameters.

The Earth seen from the Moon (courtesy by NASA).

Two reasons are decisive, both due to the Moon:
(1) the reduced variation of the inclination of the Earth's axis, which ensures a stable climate over long periods, making possible the evolution of many forms of life;

(2) Type 2 processes, which are presumed to be characteristic of our planet, but not of others, within our solar system.

The tilt of the Earth stabilized.

We know that the Moon stabilizes the tilt of the earth (*).
For, otherwise, there would be extreme and frequent changes in the climate, which would hinder any forms of life evolution on our planet.

(*) Jacques Laskar, researcher at CNRS, has shown how the Moon stabilizes the Earth's axial tilt. Available in the web.

The Moon, a conditio sine qua non.

Indeed, the Moon operates other crucial and beneficial functions for the Earth. In this study on seeds, the Moon has emerged as a prerequisite. Without our moon, there would be no plant life on Earth.


L3 - Implications of the experiments “C” and “E”.

If what I said in itineraries 1.2 and 1.3 of this study is confirmed by other researchers, we will be in a position to say that without the Moon, the ability to germinate for the seeds, still with respect to the Earth, would cease.

It would be the motion of the Moon that triggers, on given conditions, the necessary “type 2 processes” in the fatty acids in seeds.

These processes would take place thanks to the long range force, which operates at a distance, in the domain of large numbers, the force d, which would deliver a force at no expense, generated by the motion with respect to a celestial body (see insert D).

Without the Moon, no plants.

In the absence of a substantial mass, moving close to the Earth, the mentioned “type 2 processes”, could not take place, and the seeds would not last germinable for a long time.

About the water.

As for the water, the movement of the Moon should make a contribution, perhaps crucial to the maintenance of its quality.


L4 - Two body system.

The numbers - with whom the book of nature is written - give many arguments to see the Earth, and the Moon, as a two body system: a planet, and a co-planet, where their respective sizes are possibly the most suitable ones.

And where the co-planet exists to allow a range of functions, essential to life on the planet. Without its co-planet, the Earth could not sustain life.

Instead, the Moon is barren and lifeless.

The Moon could be even more favored than the Earth. It is a pity that it has not a magnetic field, essential to the processes induced by the force d.

It is not the Moon seen from the Earth, but the Earth seen from the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.


The Earth-Moon system in comparison with other systems.

So far, I have spoken about the functions. But there are other reasons to say that our moon is not just a satellite, like those in the rest of the solar system. And that the word "satellite" is not le mot juste.

To see what I mean, compare the Earth-Moon system, with what occurs in the rest of the solar system, keeping out the couple Pluto-Charon. Let's focus our attention on the relationship of size, between planets and their respective satellites, and the way they move.


L5 - Comparison: Moon v Ganymede.

Let's compare the pair Jupiter - Ganymede, its largest satellite, with the couple Earth - Moon.

The mass of Jupiter is 12837.84 times that of Ganymede. While the mass of the Earth is 81.22 times that of the Moon. The first ratio is 158 times larger than the second.

The radius of Jupiter is 27.14 times that of Ganymede, while the radius of the Earth is only 3.67 times that of the Moon. The first ratio is 7.39 times larger than the second.

The radius of our Moon (to which I give the reference value of 1.00) is comparable to that of some planets of the solar system: that of Mercury is only slightly larger (1.40), Pluto is smaller (0.65).

The movement of the bodies in comparison.

Each planet and its satellites revolve around the center of gravity of their system. This also applies to the Earth and the Moon.

However, for all the planets, there is practically equivalence between the center of gravity of any planet taken by itself, and the center of gravity of that planet, along with its satellites.

Not so in the Earth-Moon system, where the center of gravity is not at the center of the Earth, but moved towards the Moon, as much as 3 / 4 of Earth's radius.

Differences in the angular velocities.

Let's change our point of view; let's imagine to be above the Sun's north pole, and look how differently the two couples Jupiter-Ganymede, and Earth-Moon behave.

In one Earth year, in the Earth-Moon system, the Moon revolves around the center of gravity of 13.37 times (sidereal month). During the same period of time, Ganymede rotates 51 times around the center of gravity of Jupiter's system. Ratio 1:3,81.

As the Earth and Moon move.

From the same observatory, let us now consider the movements of the couple Earth-Moon. Both bodies proceed in a zigzag line with respect to their common center of gravity trajectory around the Sun. In order not to fall over one another, they move as mentioned in the paragraphs below.

The Earth proceeds distancing from one side to the other with respect to the earth-moon trajectory, by up to 3/4 of its radius.

The Moon proceeds distancing from the earth-moon trajectory with a much broader zig-zag movement . During the new moon, it is to the left of the Earth; then it tends to lag behind. On the first quarter, the Earth and Moon are both right on the trajectory, with the Moon behind. The moon moves to the right, surpassing the Earth, eventually coming right on trajectory, before the Earth (last quarter), and finally moves to the position of the new moon. All this is repeated about every 29.5 days.

Jupiter and the other planets of the comparison are not progressing as the Earth in a zig-zag manner.

Deprived of their satellites, their movements and their characteristics remain unchanged.

The same could not be said for the Earth with no Moon.


L6 - Reformulating the research for the exo-planets.

These days there is much disquisition about the exo-planets, particularly those that have the numbers to support the life, according to a list of conditions.

Once confirmed the results of the research of this site, we should reformulate the research on the exo-planets, adding the condition, that each candidate planet to look for, must have a massive moon like ours, and a proper magnetic field.

A moon that makes it possible and widespread, on those planets, the type 2 processes, in large quantities. That is the conditio sine qua non for a planet to be fit for life.

Of course, this would increase the degree of improbability, already high, to find another planet in the universe, where the conditions could be similar to those possible on the Earth.