Effects of the Moon' movement on seeds and ocean tides.
Results of the research carried out by Pietro Baruffaldi.
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release 23.1 - 2023-09-03
introduction: page 1 ||| page 2
On this page:
1 Prologue: cumulative-dissipative processes.
2a How to increase harvests.
2b Efficiency of the cumulative-dissipative cycle in seeds.
--- 1 ---
Evolution and second law of thermodynamics.
On this website, thanks to experiments on seeds, I'm going to answer the question - posed by Erwin Schrdinger, Leon Brillouin and others - of how it is possible to reconcile:
(1) the fact of evolution here on Earth, which leads to an increase in complexity and development of the various forms of life;
(2) with the second law of thermodynamics, which would instead lead to a decrease in complexity and development, and eventually to the so-called "death of heat".
According to current theory.
According to current theory, due to the second law of thermodynamics, any decrease in entropy in a system is only possible to the detriment of another system, in which entropy increases.
However, since every use or transfer of energy takes place with an efficiency of less than 100 percent, in the overall balance, entropy grows inexorably, and eventually we will arrive at the so-called "death of heat".
This inexorable increase in entropy is in clear contrast with evolution, here on our Earth.
Experriments A and E on seeds.
As will see in experiments A and E on seeds, there are two phases, first the cumulative one, then the dissipative one.
In the cumulative phase, there is an injection of energy into the system, and an increase in entropy.
Increase in entropy which, immediately afterwards, in the subsequent dissipative phase, is more than compensated by a greater decrease, in a process where the compatibility between evolution and the second law of thermodynamics is achieved.
All this can happen - contrary to current theory - thanks to something not yet considered.
Let's go in order, one step at a time.
Antidote to the second law of thermodynamics.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics tells only half of the story.
As we will see, the effects of the second law of thermodynamics are compensated by an engine, that of cumulative-dissipative processes, assisted by two consequent forces, the first already known, the second highlighted in the analysis of the experiments.
These two consequent forces are gravity (due to the interaction between matter and other matter), and the "force d" (force due to angular movement with respect to other matter).
Gravity determines the movement, exploited by force d.
As we will see on page 1.3.4, the two forces have very distinct characteristics.
In planet Earth, cumulative-dissipative processes allow a decrease of entropy, without overall degradation of energy, down to the same level, when then there will be no more useful heat exchange.
The missing piece.
So we can consider these processes as the missing piece in the reasoning practiced to date, where evolution and the second law of thermodynamics are recognized as true, even if incompatible with each other.
Application in agriculture.
Instead of leaving these processes to chance, the understanding of their ways and times, in which they take place, has allowed me to develop a procedure, in the public domain, to improve the germinability of seeds, during the sowing stage.
The procedure allows you to increase yields in the order of 30 to 50 percent (all other variables being equal), and promote the root system, which goes deeper, so useful in case of drought.
How these processes are activated.
The cumulative-dissipative processes manifest themselves in seeds in such peculiar ways that it is as if they had their own signature.
As I saw in the experiment A (Sunflower seeds set in motion relative to the surrounding matter) and in the experiment E (Seeds still in relation to the surrounding matter, but in motion with regard to the Moon), these processes are activated:
(1) by the angular motion with respect to other matter;
(2) and by heat exchanges, first lent, when the motion is increasing (cumulative phase), and then returned, when it is decreasing (dissipative phase);
(3) but this can take place only at critical angular velocities.
Because of the last fact, they manifest themselves during brief episodes of interaction. Except when said movement insists for a long time on a critical angular velocity, with respect to other matter.
--- 2a ---
How to increase harvests.
The seeds manage their germination capacity, so as to keep it for a long time, thanks to the cumulative-dissipative processes, which usually take place with reduced efficiency, because they are left to chance.
The discovery allowed me to develop a procedure, aimed at making these processes more efficient.
This procedure seems a paradoxical one. In experiment E, the most favored seeds are precisely those which, according to current theory, should be the most disfavoured.
Indeed, it is the "force d" (force due to angular movement with respect to other matter) that changes the logic to be used in this case.
A small increase in entropy, during the cumulative phase, favors a larger reduction, during the subsequent dissipative phase.
When the seeds are firm with respect to Earth.
Since the seeds are mostly stationary relative to the Earth, it is mainly their angular movement relative to the Moon that has an effect.
The sowing calendars.
The sowing procedure, intended to improve the germination capacity of seeds, takes into account the calendars that indicate when cumulative dissipative processes take place in seeds, when stationary relative to the Earth.
On this site, in order to make it easy to understand, the sowing calendars do not indicate the angular velocity of the seeds with respect to the Moon, but the hourly angular velocity of the Moon, in its orbit around the Earth, defined in 86400 deltins, and performed in a sidereal month.
Consequently, cumulative phases take place when said movement is indicated as decreasing (periods b-c; d-a), while dissipative phases take place when said movement is indicated as increasing (a-b; c-d).
All the experiments on seeds, published on this site, were performed in open fields, not in a greenhouse. However, in order to meet the times of the cycle, the procedure is best done where the timing of the water supply can be controlled, as can take place in a greenhouse, rather than being dependent on the vagaries of the weather.
In order to avoid the impoverishment of the soil, the procedure also requires a suitable rotation of the crops, alternating improving species, preparatory species and impoverishing species.
This would allow to have lower costs in terms of plant protection products, and fertilizers. In this regard, the use of fertilizers of fossil origin should be avoided, not only because they contain only a part of those necessary, but also because they are harmful to the quality of the environment, especially in the long term (greenhouse effect).
Example of the experiment E.
Harvest results from two seed groups (5+5), of the same quality, kept at two different temperatures during the cumulative phase (period d-a). The seeds that gave rise to the panicles on the right in the photo were kept at a higher temperature during the cumulative phase.
The sowing took place on april 7th 2005, the day before the beginning of the dissipative phase (a-b).
For details, see in the index seeds.
itinerary 1.1 Application;
itinerary 1.2 Observations and experiments;
itinerary 1.3 Interpretation of phenomena.
--- 2b ---
Efficiency of the cumulative-dissipative cycle in seeds.
The cumulative-dissipative cycle, by which seeds maintain their ability to germinate, varies in efficiency over the course of 18.6 years.
The variation in said efficiency depends on:
- the fact that cumulative-dissipative processes can only take place at critical angular speeds with respect to other matter (and of course at heat exchanges, in a cumulative sense if said speed is increasing, and in a dissipative sense if said speed is decreasing);
- and the variation in the declination of the Moon with respect to the equator, which can range from just over 14 degrees up to 28.5 degrees.
Seven years of lean times.
When this variation exceeds 26 degrees, during seven years within the cycle, the efficiency of the cumulative-dissipative processes is low, due to too long intervals, when there is no critical angular velocity, at which said processes can take place.
Indeed, the more the declination of the Moon varies with respect to the Earth's equator, the shorter the episodes during which cumulative-dissipative processes can take place, the lower their efficiency.
When, in the cumulative phase, these episodes are short, and at the same time the temperature is low, the efficiency of the cycle is compromised.
A combination that has caused the most serious famines throughout history.
In this first introductory page, the topic of the site, the cumulative-dissipative processes, and their application in agriculture have been briefly presented.
On the second page of the introduction, I introduce a first hypothesis, which, as happens in seeds, cumulative-dissipative processes also decrease entropy in other ambits.
Continued - 2nd introductory page.