How the motion of the Moon affects the seeds and the water of our oceans.

Results of the research carried out by Pietro Baruffaldi.

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release 23.0 - 2023-04-14

On this page: 1 Prologue; 2 How to increase harvests; 3 A consequent force; 4 Cumulative dissipative structures; 5 Theory on tides revisited.

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Prologue.

Originally, one of the first goals of my research was to understand how seeds stay germinable for a long time.

The result was the discovery of the cumulative-dissipative cycle, regulated in the seeds by the angular motion with respect to other matter, when activated by heat exchanges consistent with the motion, as I will tell after the next paragraph.

Application in agriculture.

As you will see in section 2 of this page, the understanding of the way in which these processes take place has allowed me to develop a procedure, in the public domain, to improve the germinability of seeds, increase crops by 30 to 50 percent - all other variables being equal - and favor the root system, which goes deeper, so useful in times of drought.

How these processes are activated.

The cumulative-dissipative processes manifest themselves in such peculiar ways that it is as if they had their own signature.

They are activated:

(1) by the angular motion with respect to other matter;

(2) and by heat exchanges, first lent, when the motion is increasing (cumulative phase), and then returned, when it is decreasing (dissipative phase);

(3) but this can take place only at critical angular velocities.

Because of the last fact, they manifest themselves during brief episodes of interaction. Except when said movement insists for a long time on a critical angular velocity.

These processes also go to solve two age-old physics problems.

#1 - Second law of thermodynamics and evolution.

While the second law of thermodynamics speaks to us of a reality that should tend to be less and less complex and orderly, up to the so-called "death of heat", the theory of evolution instead takes note of a reality that, up to now, has tended to be increasingly complex and orderly, in favour of the flourishing of life.

The opposite consequences of the two laws have already been brought to our attention, in particular by two physicists: Erwin Schrœdinger and Leon Brillouin.

Erwin Schrœdinger, in February 1943, wondered how the evolution of life is possible, in spite of the second law of thermodynamics (principle of increasing entropy). This inconsistency, unrecognized by most, between a fact and a law of physics, led him to say that we should be ready to accept a new law, the missing piece of a jigsaw puzzle, integrating what is already known.

A few years later also Leon Brillouin wondered: "How is it possible to understand life when the entire world is ordered by a law such as the second principle of thermodynamics, which points to death and annihilation?"

Antidote to the second law of thermodynamics.

The questions posed by these two physicists and others are now being answered by cumulative-dissipative processes. In the planet Earth, these processes allow a decrease in entropy, with no degradation of energy. Not just in the seeds.

They make evolution possible, despite the second law of thermodynamics, which, all by itself, without the antidote of said processes, would rapidly lead our planet to involution, and to the so-called "heat death".

As it has already happened on Mars, where the characteristics that make the processes in question possible are lacking.

#2 - Theory on tides revisited.

Cumulative-dissipative processes also make it possible to resolve several inconsistencies in the current tidal theory. The revision of this theory will be presented shortly in section 5 of this page. It will then be expanded in detail, later, in chapters dedicated to the topic.

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How to increase harvests.

As already mentioned, the seeds manage their germination capacity, so as to keep it for a long time, thanks to the cumulative dissipative processes.

The discovery allowed me to develop a procedure aimed at making these processes more efficient. They already unfold, but with reduced efficiency, because left to chance.

When the seeds are firm with respect to Earth.

The procedure for improving the germination capacity of seeds takes into account the calendars, when dissipative processes take place, after sowing, when they are stationary with respect to the Earth, but moving with respect to the Moon.

The sowing calendars.

On this site, the sowing calendars do not indicate the angular velocity of the seeds with respect to the Moon (the one that has an effect), but the hourly angular velocity of the Moon, in its orbit around the Earth, defined in 86400 deltins, and performed in a sidereal month.

Consequently, cumulative phases can take place when said movement is indicated as decreasing (periods b-c; d-a), while dissipative phases can take place when said movement is indicated as increasing (a-b; c-d).

All the experiments on seeds, published on this site, were performed in open fields, not in a greenhouse. However, in order to meet the times of the cycle, the procedure is best done where the timing of the water supply can be controlled, as can take place in a greenhouse, rather than being dependent on the vagaries of the weather.

In order to avoid the impoverishment of the soil, the procedure also requires a suitable rotation of the crops, alternating improving species, preparatory species and impoverishing species.

This would allow to have lower costs in terms of plant protection products, and fertilizers. In this regard, it would much better to reduce or avoid the use of fossil-based fertilizers, as they are harmful to product quality, and to the environment, especially in the long term.

Example of an “experiment E”.

Harvest results from two seed groups (5+5), of the same quality, kept at two different temperatures during the cumulative phase (period d-a). The sowing took place on april 7th 2005, the day before the beginning of the dissipative phase (a-b).

For details, see in the index seeds:
itinerary 1.1 Application;
itinerary 1.2 Observations and experiments;
itinerary 1.3 Interpretation of phenomena.

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A consequent force.

Before considering cumulative-dissipative processes we must talk about the force that activates them. It is a consequent force, which I call "force d", short for "force due to angular motion with respect to other matter".

The “force d” works in tandem with another consequent force, gravity. While gravity is a consequence of the interaction between matter and other matter which is around, the "force d" is a consequence of the angular movement with respect to other matter.

As we will see on page 1.3.4, the two forces have very distinct characteristics.

The two faces of physics.

The cumulative dissipative processes act between the two sides of the coin of physics: on the one hand the two consequent forces - gravity and "force d" - on the other the laws of thermodynamics.

It is in particular the “force d” which acts as a counterweight to the tendency of entropy to increase. Otherwise we would be condemned to involution, and to the final effects of the second law of thermodynamics, when all the matter will be at the same thermodynamic level, and there will be no longer any useful heat exchanges (the so called heat death).

Either Darwin is right, or Clausius.

As some say, either Darwin is right, or Clausius. Not both. Cumulative-dissipative processes bring them into agreement, in their respective fields of expertise.

Evolution.

Indeed, it is thanks to the cumulative dissipative processes that there is entropy reduction without energy degradation.

This advantage then pours on all living beings, keeping the general entropy low, thus allowing the evolution of the various forms of life on Earth. A fact not explainable otherwise.

All the necessary conditions for these processes to take place are present on the Earth. Also an adequate magnetic field would be among the necessary conditions.

Not so on the Moon, nor on Mars, where, as far as I can assume, the effects of the second law of thermodynamics cannot be balanced by cumulative-dissipative processes.

The results of "experiments E", to be performed on the Moon and Mars, may or may not confirm these statements of mine.

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Cumulative dissipative structures.

Physicist Ilya Prigogine has called "dissipative structures" systems that consume “free energy”, produce order and disperse heat.

From the results of this research, I can say that structures that lend themselves to cumulative dissipative processes - such as fatty acids in seeds, and water - can decrease their entropy without energy degradation.

I expect that these processes can also take place in other molecules

Energy first borrowed, then returned.

In the cumulative phase, energy, in the form of heat, is borrowed; molecules tend to assume higher energy and less uniform configurations.

In the dissipative phase, the energy, first borrowed in the cumulative phase, is returned; molecules then tend to fall on lower energy and more uniform configurations, in a kind of reset, of self-reorganization.

At the end of this double process, the neguentropic balance is positive. Entropy has decreased.

When the movement - the one that induces dissipative cumulative processes - is determined by the other consequent force, gravity, there is decrease in entropy, without energy degradation, by circumventing the second law of thermodynamics.

It’s a paradigm shift. In the cases considered, the dissipative processes, introduced by Ilya Prigogine, are preceded by heat exchanges in the cumulative phase.

Based on the different trend of the processes.

Due to the different trends of the processes in the two phases, the increase of entropy (worsening), in the cumulative phase, is more than compensated by its greater decrease (improvement), in its subsequent dissipative phase.

Paradoxically, within certain limits, cumulative processes give opportunities to decrease entropy during the following dissipative phase. Indeed, the cumulative phase turns out to be functional to the dissipative phase, as in the experiment E.

In other words, it’s the right temperature variation, in each phase of the cycle, which makes entropy to decrease.

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Theory on tides revisited.

The peculiar modalities of cumulative-dissipative processes open up another promising field of investigation, that of ocean tides, with the possibility of solving the inconsistencies of the current theory.

Among the inconsistencies, there is that of attributing to the attraction two very different formulas of physics: a formula valid only for the tides, where the distance is raised to the third power, and one for all the rest, where the distance is raised to the second power.

So they said that it is not the Sun that attracts the waters of our seas on average 178 times more than the Moon does, as would be the normal formula of attraction. Instead, it would be the Moon which attracts them on average 2.17 times more than the Sun does.

All this in defiance of the fundamental rule, for which the book of Nature is written in mathematical characters, as Galileo Galilei had previously stated. Correct, not false characters.

Another inconsistency in the current theory is that it cannot explain the different cadence of the tides: that mostly they have a bi-diurnal cadence, but that, in some basins, the tide can have a diurnal cadence.

Variation of the volume of water.

The tidal phenomenon would not be due to gravity, but to the other consequent force, the "force d", according to the activation methods, typical of cumulative dissipative processes, as specified above. These processes would cause the alternating variation of the water volume.

Differences between what happens in seeds and in water.

In the seeds stationary with respect to the Earth, but moving with respect to the Moon, the two phases - cumulative and dissipative - take place in two different periods of time.

Water, when liquid, is instead composed of groups of molecules, which can increase or decrease their angular velocity, with respect to other matter, not in agreement with each other.

The discontinuity of the phenomenon tide is thus hidden.

In fact, at a given moment, the cumulative-dissipative processes, which take place only at critical angular velocities, with respect to the Moon for example, take place only for a few groups of molecules at a time, in rotation.

Thus, most of the time, we cannot see that the change in the volume of water takes place discontinuously.

Only under certain conditions does the water change in volume, significantly, in a short time. It is when enough water molecules move in agreement with each other, at the same critical angular velocity, with regard, for instance, to the Moon.

Only then does the phenomenon of water figures appear, arranged in a more or less regular way.

Evidence collection.

The evidence was collected in a lagoon, with two accesses to the sea, which make it a kind of natural astronomical lens, at times when there is a combination of variables, which amplifies the local generation of the tide.

The most important variables are: (1) when the movement of non-stagnant water is reduced; and (2) when the movement of the Moon is at a critical angular velocity, with respect to many molecules, for a prolonged time (almost always only at the points a, b, c, d of the calendar used for seeds). For more details see itinerary 2.3.

In some cases water figures move and take the form of what I call "density waves".

The "density waves" phenomenon of the film took place on March 18, 2011, at point c of the calendar, at the critical angular velocity of deltins 139,4/hr.

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A quest to be concluded.

What I found must be confirmed by other researchers. In fact, for this topic, there is no “peer review” yet. There will be some only after other researchers have performed the necessary observations and experiments.

This search is far from complete. I am alone, and there are still large areas to be defined, for example the list of critical angular velocities at which cumulative-dissipative processes are performed.

This last difficulty can be grasped by others as an opportunity, as an incentive to adopt this research to complete it, given my age (I was born in February 1943).

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