How the motion of the Moon affects the seeds and the water of our oceans.

Results of the research carried out by Pietro Baruffaldi.


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On this second page of introduction:
3 Evolution amd second law of thermodynamics;
A consequent force;
4b Cumulative dissipative structures.


--- 3 ---

Evolution and second law of thermodynamics.

The sowing procedure described before decreases the entropy of the seed, but not at the expense of anything else, thus despite the second law of thermodynamics.

Considered all alone, this law speaks to us of a reality that should tend to be less and less complex and orderly. Any decrease in entropy in a system would only be possible to the detriment of another système, until the leveling of energies, and the so-called "heat death ", when there can no longer be an exchange of useful heat.

Contrary to what this law predicts, the theory of evolution instead takes note of a reality which, up to now, on our Earth, has tended to be increasingly complex and ordered, in favor of the overall flourishing of life.

Antidote to the second law of thermodynamics.

What I have experienced on seeds answers the questions posed by Erwin Schrœdinger and Leon Brillouin, and others, revealing that the second law of thermodynamics tells half the story.

The other half is told to us by the cumulative-dissipative processes, which thus dissolve/resolve the incompatibility between said law and the fact of evolution.

These processes allow a decrease in entropy, without degradation of energy. Not just in seeds.

Without the antidote of cumulative-dissipative processes, the second law of thermodynamics would instead lead our planet to involution, and to the so-called "heat death".

As has already happened on Mars, equipped with two satellites, but each one with a small mass, not sufficient for the movement with respect to them to generate enough cumulative-dissipative processes on the planet.

--- 4a ---

A consequent force.

At this point, we need to talk about the force that activates the cumulative-dissipative processes. It appears to be a consequent force, which I call "force d", short for "force due to angular movement with respect to other matter".

The “force d” operates in tandem with another consequent force, gravity. While gravity (force of attraction due to the interaction between bodies with mass) is a consequence of the interaction between matter and other matter that is around it, the "force d" is a consequence of the angular movement with respect to other matter.

The two faces of physics.

The cumulative dissipative processes act between the two sides of the coin of physics: on the one hand the two consequent forces - gravity and "force d" - on the other the laws of thermodynamics.

It is in particular the “force d” which acts as a counterweight to the tendency of entropy to increase.

Otherwise we would be condemned to involution, and to the final effects of the second law of thermodynamics, when all the matter will be at the same thermodynamic level, and there will be no longer any useful heat exchanges.

Either Darwin is right, or Clausius.

As some say, either Darwin is right, or Clausius. Not both. Cumulative-dissipative processes bring them into agreement, in their respective fields of expertise.


Indeed, it is thanks to the cumulative dissipative processes that there is entropy reduction without energy degradation.

This advantage then pours on all living beings, keeping the general entropy low, thus allowing the evolution of the various forms of life on Earth. A fact not explainable otherwise.

All the necessary conditions for these processes to take place are present on the Earth. Also an adequate magnetic field would be among the necessary conditions.

Not so on the Moon, nor on Mars, where, as far as I can assume, the effects of the second law of thermodynamics cannot be balanced by cumulative-dissipative processes.

In fact, the discovery of cumulative-dissipative processes adds another element to be evaluated in the feasibility of the exploration of Mars. Its two moons are of negligible mass; even its reduced magnetic field would not satisfy what is needed.

The results of "experiments A" and of "experiments E", to be performed on the Moon and Mars, may or may not confirm these statements of mine.

--- 4b ---

Cumulative dissipative structures.

It is worth remembering that the physicist Ilya Prigogine called "dissipative structures" the systems that consume "free energy" and then disperse heat producing order.

Here I speak rather of structures that lend themselves to cumulative-dissipative processes. Thanks to the discovery of the "force d", the two phases "free energy" and heat dispersion are replaced by the two cumulative and dissipative phases, where the heat is first introduced and then dissipated in coherence with the increase and decrease of the angular velocity with respect to other matter.

At the end of these processes, the fatty acids in the seeds are found to acquire uniform configurations, of low energy level, and lower entropy, but with no energy degradation. In a kind of reset, and self-reorganization.

I expect that these processes can also take place in other molecules

Energy first borrowed, then returned.

In the cumulative phase, energy, in the form of heat, is borrowed; molecules tend to assume higher energy and less uniform configurations.

In the dissipative phase, the energy, first borrowed in the cumulative phase, is returned; molecules then tend to fall on lower energy and more uniform configurations, in a kind of reset, of self-reorganization.

At the end of this double process, the neguentropic balance is positive. Entropy has decreased.

Entropy reduction, no energy degradation.

Entropy reduction happens when the angular movement with respect to other matter - the one that induces the "d force" and therefore the cumulative dissipative processes - is determined by the other consequent force, gravity. It is then that there is a decrease in entropy, without degradation of energy, circumventing the second law of thermodynamics.

Based on the different trend of the processes.

Due to the different trends of the processes in the two phases, the increase of entropy (worsening), in the cumulative phase, is more than compensated by its greater decrease (improvement), in its subsequent dissipative phase.

Within certain limits, cumulative processes give opportunities to decrease entropy during the following dissipative phase. Indeed, the cumulative phase turns out to be functional to the dissipative phase, as tested in the experiment E in seeds.

In other words, it’s the right temperature variation, in each phase of the cycle, which makes entropy to decrease.


A quest to be concluded.

What I found must be confirmed by other researchers. In fact, for this topic, there is no “peer review” yet. There will be some only after other researchers have performed the necessary observations and experiments.

This search is far from complete. I am alone, and there are still large areas to be defined, for example the list of critical angular velocities at which cumulative-dissipative processes are performed.

This last difficulty can be grasped by others as an opportunity, as an incentive to adopt this research to complete it, given my age (I was born in February 1943).


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